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Myra / Demre / Kale

myra-1Located at the southeastern end of the Teke peninsula, the apparent of Demre is formed by the alluvia agitated by Demre brook as it springs from the slopes of Mount Akdağ and alcove the sea, accustomed with it the clay of Kasaba plain. The charcoal of the age-old city-limits of Myra, accustomed at a point breadth the bow-shaped apparent of Demre, formed by the arc of the Taurus Mountains appear the arctic which afresh aeroembolism appear the sea, joins the hillside are accomplished by casual through the district.Demre is today one of the foremost touristic centres of the amphitheatre acknowledgment to, primarily, the Abbey of St. Nicholas and its different bedrock tombs as able-bodied as the baroque coast. In the Luwian/Etruscan accent the name of the city-limits is begin to be “Maura” which meant “Place of the Abundant Mother Goddess”.

Over the years it changed, aboriginal to “Mura” and afresh to Myra. Moreover, the name Myra can be advisedly apprehend in the old Gök Turk writing. Accordingly, the name Myra can be apprehend as “place of Amay” acceptation “place of Amay Mother-Great Mother”. Lying on the abruptness of the mountains, surrounding the apparent of Demre in the northwest, adverse the sea, the charcoal of the acropolis city-limits can be seen. The walls of the acropolis, at an acclivity of 200 m, were congenital of Cyclopean stones. It is accepted that the history of the area, referred to as Termilia in the Lycian inscriptions, dates aback to several thousand years B.C. Afterwards the enactment of the Lycian Federation during the 7th aeon B.C. the city-limits bodies confused down from the acropolis and acclimatized on the apparent breadth the accepted charcoal of the age-old city-limits are found. Myra minted its aboriginal bread with a delineation of the mother goddess on it during the 4th aeon B.C.

myra-2Myra, which was one of the above cities of the Lycian Federation, accepting the appropriate of three votes, remained beneath Persian activity until 300 B.C. and was afresh captured by pirates. At the point breadth Myra creek, broiled up today, flowed into the Mediterranean afterwards active through the city-limits there was a anchorage adjustment assemblage alleged Andriake. Due to the barbarism of the river bed for address transportation, the ships entering the river could go appropriate into the city-limits of Myra. Thus the city, with its awful developed amphibian commerce, was apparent to invasions during assorted periods. Therefore, in adjustment to assure Myra, about a above city, blubbery chains were fatigued at the aperture of the river in the anchorage of Andriake to anticipate the access of adversary ships in times of danger. If these chains were torn by the Roman Lentulus in 42 B.C. the city-limits was bedeviled by the Romans. Myra enjoyed the aiguille of its abundance if it was adorned with assorted structures during the Pax Romana era. The city, which was answer to the cachet of a city-limits during the Byzantine aeon in the 2nd aeon A.D., became a above centre of Christianity and accomplished abundant acclaim as a aftereffect of the efforts of a abbey alleged St. Nicholas who lived during the 4th century. st_nicholasIf St. Nicholas died actuality a abbey was congenital in his name. The city, which abiding amercement as a aftereffect of the Arab raids during the 7th and 9th centuries, remained beneath Arab activity for a while and if Turks came to the breadth during the backward 11th aeon they acclimatized down on the flatland in foreground of the Age-old City-limits of Myra and accustomed today’s commune of Demre.

Today Demre is the centre of citrus bake-apple groves and greenhouses. The charcoal of the aged city-limits lie in the breadth alleged Kocademre amid 1 km to the arctic of the district. The aboriginal notable plan in the breadth breadth the charcoal are begin is the theatre. The theatre, with a bore of 110 m, reckoned to accept been rebuilt in the 2nd aeon A.D. aloft the charcoal of the baby theatre which existed previously, bears the architectural characteristics of the Roman era. In foreground of the theatre, next to the brook Demre, it is anticipation that a ample Agora existed, amidst by Doric adjustment columns. The Agora square, which aswell appears to accept been acclimated as a theatre square, is today absolutely active beneath the silt. Theatre tiers were congenital into the ancillary of the acropolis acropolis and two vomitory beholder access sites, in which flights of bedrock accomplish ascent according to the date architecture in acme can be seen. Spectators entering the theatre at these credibility came to the diazoma and from the diazoma they reached, afresh via flights of vertical bedrock steps, the lower and top caveas. The caveas are disconnected into two by a diazoma barometer 3 m in width, with 29 tiers on the lower breadth and 9 tiers on the top section. In the actual bosom of the diazoma is a abatement of Fortune, Goddess of Luck, on the bank at the point agnate to the apsis. An apsis to be fatigued from this abatement corresponds absolutely to the mean of the orchestra. A bedrock aegis bank congenital at a acme of 2 m during the backward Roman aeon indicates that the Theatre was aswell acclimated as an amphitheatre for gladiator action and agrarian animals during this era. It appears that the date architecture was two-storeyed and that on the aboriginal attic of the foreground façade angled niches amid columns of Ionic orders were faced with marble plates bizarre with affluent bulb reliefs.

Furthermore, the lower breadth of the belvedere of the date architecture is bizarre with friezes bizarre with theatre masks, reliefs and assorted plants. At the access of the theatre is an inscription giving advice on the allotment and rebuilding, by Opramoas from Rodiapolis, of the theatre which was broke as a aftereffect of the abundant convulsion in 141 A.D. On an inscription begin on the arena at the southern access of the theatre, on the added hand, is an brace ambience out the acceptation and consign altitude of the city. MyraAlthough the foundation of the acropolis walls amid anon to the arctic of the theatre dates aback to actual age-old eras, it is accepted that their top allotment was rebuilt in the 6th aeon B.C. To the western ancillary of the walls fabricated of dressed bedrock application the polygonal address is the old city-limits gate, 4 m advanced by 9 m high, visible. Building were congenital on both abandon of the gate. To the eastern abruptness of the acropolis, on the added hand, are the charcoal of an aqueduct, 20 km long. It is reckoned that through the access of baptize canals congenital by rock-carving at casual places this channel agitated beginning baptize from the tablelands in the arctic into the city. In age-old times the aged city-limits of Myra was adequate in its bound by several walls at assorted credibility up to Andriake, its anchorage connection, and forth Demre creek, and by way of architecture bouncer and watch building at specific credibility its river barter was advised to be taken beneath protection.

The a lot of important ruin of the age-old city-limits of Myra arresting today is the Necropolis abounding of Lycian bedrock tombs, the alone one of its affectionate in the world. As Lycians believed that, afterwards death, the alcohol of bodies would be taken by a active angel and brought aboriginal to the blast and afresh underground to hell, or Hades, to be questioned, they consistently put their asleep into sarcophagi placed on a top bouldered belvedere or in the bedrock tombs carved into the bedrock face top up on the mountains. These bedrock tombs, aswell begin in Myra, accept been carved into a arduous abruptness adverse east. These house-type tombs carved into the foreground façades had one or several accommodation and the asleep were placed into the chamber, afresh assimilate a rock-carved podium, calm with their favourite articles, jewellery, clothes and food. The bedrock tombs had a individual access which was bankrupt with a ample boulder. On the face of the bedrock tombs are reliefs about the professions of the asleep if they were alive. Inscriptions on the tombs were all accounting in the Lycian accent and spaces amid tombs were commutual via bedrock steps.

A bedrock tomb amid at the advanced point with the façade carved in the anatomy of a columnar temple is notable for its reliefs. Here, the ancestors members, wife and accouchement of the asleep are stylised in accouterment of the era and he himself in his warrior’s outfits. Assorted instants from the person’s activity are depicted. Going westwards one arrives at a bedrock tomb on which the abatement of two warriors is carved. Here, an burning in which a warrior behind, with a absorber in his appropriate hand, chases a soldier in foreground of him is illustrated. East of the theatre the charcoal of a bathhouse can be seen, with three arches and top chambers, 36 m advanced and congenital of brick in three sections with a ample angled aperture at the entrance. There are shops affairs accurate bounded souvenirs, cafeterias and restaurants in the breadth breadth the charcoal are found.


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